INTRODUCTION AND FUNCTIONS OF MATERIAL HANDLING
Material handling is an activity that involves movement of raw material, work in process, finished products etc. within an organization from one place to another place or the flow of material to vehicles or from vehicles. It is not only about the movement of material. It also involves storage, protection, and control of material while it moves in different departments like a warehouse, production, and manufacturing departments. It is one of the essential tasks for organizations. A poorly handled material become waste before it can be used for production purpose or before it is sent to retail stores.
IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL HANDLING:
- Function of production control.
- Concerned with scheduling of production control.
- Material Handling adds value to product cost.
- Material Handling increases effectiveness of in plant layout by reducing the cost.
OBJECTIVES OF MATERIAL HANDLING:
- To lower unit materials handling cost.
- To reduce manufacturing cycle time.
- To provide better control of the flow of materials.
- To provide better working conditions.
- To provide Contribution for better quality by avoiding damages to products.
- To Increase storage capacity.
- To provide higher productivity at lower manufacturing costs.
MATERIAL HANDLING PRINCIPLES:
- Material should be moved as little as possible.
- Reduction in time by using shortest routes and mechanical material handling equipment.
- The material movement should be in lots rather than in individual units.
- Design of material handling equipment should be such that it can increase the effectiveness.
- Gravity should be used.
- Back tracking of materials should be avoided.
- Periodically Repairing, Maintenance & Checkup of existing material handling equipment’s.
- To reduce the costs by decreasing inventories, minimizing the distance to be handled and increasing productivity.
- To increase the production capacity by smoothing the work flow.
- To minimize he waste during handling.
- To improve distribution through better location of facilities and improved routing.
- To increase the equipment and space utilization.
- To improve the working conditions.
- To improve the customer service.
Different material handling equipment and their selection
Type 1: Conveyers
These are gravity or powered devices commonly used for moving uniform loads from point point over fixed paths, where the primary function is conveying. Commonly used equipment under this category are:
- Belt conveyer
- Roller conveyer
- Chain conveyer
- Bucket conveyer
- Trolley conveyer
- Screw conveyer
- Pipeline conveyer
- Vibratory conveyer
Type 2: Cranes, Elevators and Hoists
These are overhead devices used for moving varying loads intermittently between points within an area, fixed by the supporting and binding rails, where the primary function is transferring or elevating. Commonly used equipment under this category are:
- Overhead traveling crane
- Gantry crane
- Jib crane
- Stacker crane
Type 3: Industrial Trucks and Vehicles
There are hand operated or powered vehicles used for movement of uniform or mixed loads intermittently over various paths having suitable running surfaces and clearances, where the primary function is transporting. Commonly used equipment under this category are:
- Fork lift truck
- Platform truck
- Industrial tractors
- Industrial cars
- Walkie truck
- Hand stacker
Type 4: Auxiliary Equipment
These are devices or attachments used with handling equipment to make their use more effective and versatile. Commonly used equipment under this category are:
- Pallets and skids
- Pallet loader and unloader
- Lift truck attachments
- Dock boards and levelers
- Below the hook devices
- Weighing equipment